in Infinity ocean, the ocean of knowledge. Ocean life. Esoteric Club.
Mon Dec 09, 2019 12:50 pm
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ÿþFelid social systems have been characterized as solitary with puma latest shoes exclusive territories within the sexes ( Sunquist and Sunquist 2002 ). Females generally occupy a range that encompasses enough prey for themselves and their dependents, whereas ranges of males are defined by maximizing access to females while maintaining enough food for individual survival (e.g., leopards [ Panthera pardus Mizutani and Jewell 1998 ], tigers [ Panthera tigris Sunquist 1981 ], and jaguars [ Panthera onca Schaller and Crawshaw 1980 ; Scognamillo et al. 2002 ]).
A similar problem of inadequate sample sizes and unknown number of individuals is apparent in studies of coexistence between species, which is often explained for carnivores puma leather sneakers by differentiation of prey selection, activity patterns, or habitat. However, the mechanisms of sympatric coexistence of jaguars and pumas elude such distinctions. Diet studies have shown overlap in food selection across their range, making them potential competitors ( puma lifestyle shoes Crawshaw and Quigley 2002 ; Emmons 1987 ; Leite and Galvão 2002 ; Novack et al. 2005 ; Núñez et al. 2000 ; Scognamillo et al. 2003 ; Taber et al. 1997 ).
Here we analyze temporal and spatial interactions between a uniquely large sample of individuals to tackle 2 fundamental questions about the function of jaguar movements in resource exploitation: Does spatial overlap of ranges of males depend on hierarchies of residence? Are temporal interactions of puma mexico jaguars with pumas distinguishable from conspecific interactions? These components of behavior were sampled more representatively than is possible with telemetry by using an array of more than 100 camera stations. Camera traps were placed on established and newly opened trails traversing the dense forest matrix.
Jaguars were individually identified from photographic captures. Cameras had an enforced 3-min delay between exposures to prevent wasting film on herd-forming species such as peccaries. Each photograph was stamped with the time and date, allowing calculation of time intervals between consecutive captures at the same camera location. To ensure spatiotemporal independence, simultaneously running camera stations were separated by >2 km. Any jaguar or puma captured at 2 stations on a single day was recorded for analysis at only 1 of the stations, chosen at random. Minitab puma official site version 14 (Minitab Ltd., Coventry, United Kingdom) was used for all statistical analyses.
A single run consisted of all consecutive captures of the same species (Jaguar or puma). The frequencies of runs of consecutive captures of the same and different species through time indicated to what extent the species attracted or avoided each other. A clustered distribution (few runs) occurred when each species had more consecutive captures than expected at random, indicating avoidance between the 2 species. A regular distribution (many short runs) occurred when the 2 species had fewer consecutive captures than expected at random, indicating attraction between species.